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2010年度十大医学突破ips最新进展

2010/12/30/9:37来源:《时代》周刊

    【慧聪制药工业网】美国《时代》周刊在其网站上公布了2010年十大医学突破名单,其中“可降低HIV感染风险的抗艾滋病药”、“人工合成细胞”、“老年性痴呆症的血液检测”及“更快更安全培育iPS细胞”等成果入选。生物谷编辑根据网友编译和原文整理如下:

药

可降低HIV感染风险的抗艾药

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    1.可降低HIV感染风险的抗艾药

    1.AIDSDrugsLowertheRiskofHIVInfection

    研究者在对来自6个国家的2500名HIV阳性同性恋男性进行的一项高风险试验期间,研究人员发现与安慰剂相比,一种被称作Truvada的抗逆转录病毒药物能降低44%的HIV感染风险。科学家对那些每天服用这种药物最积极的试验参与者进行更进一步研究,发现他们感染HIV的风险甚至更低,比服用安慰剂的参与者低近73%。

    目前还需要进行更多研究才能确定抗逆转录病毒药物对预防HIV的好处,公共卫生专家发出警告说,即使最终结果证实这种方法确实有效,它也不能取代最好的预防方法:安全性生活和使用避孕套。这是因为所谓的暴露前预防方法的工作原理,是让高风险人群在接触这种病毒前服用抑制HIV抗逆转录病毒药物,这样做能促使该药尽快对抗HIV。但是抗逆转录病毒药物不会像疫苗一样,激活免疫系统预防感染。

    Antiretroviral drugs have turned the AIDS epidemic around, by thwarting the virus in HIV-positive patients. But new research suggests that this powerful treatment may have another benefit as a weapon against infection in healthy individuals.

In a trial involving nearly 2,500 HIV-negative, but high risk, gay men in six countries, researchers found that a combination antiretroviral pill called Truvada reduced the risk of HIV infection by 44%, compared with placebo. When scientists looked more carefully at the study volunteers who took the medication most faithfully, on a daily basis, they found that the risk of contracting HIV was even lower 73% lower than the placebo group.

More studies will need to confirm the benefit of antiretrovirals in the prevention of HIV, and public health experts warn that even if the results hold up, it would not replace the best method of prophylaxis: safe sex and consistent use of condoms. That's because the way so-called pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, works is to load up high-risk people with HIV-disabling antiretroviral drugs before exposure to the virus, which allows the medication to hit HIV as early as possible. But the drugs do not work as a vaccine would, by priming the immune system to actually prevent infection.

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